By Toshihiko Hara
This is often the e-book to target a brand new phenomenon rising within the twenty-first century: the swiftly getting older and lowering inhabitants of a well-developed state, specifically, Japan. The which means of this phenomenon has been effectively clarified because the attainable ancient final result of the demographic transition from excessive delivery and dying charges to low ones. Japan has entered the post-demographic transitional section and may be the fastest-shrinking society on the planet, major different Asian international locations which are experiencing an analogous drastic alterations. the writer used the historic records, compiled via the Statistic Bureau, Ministry of inner Affairs and Communications in 2006 and inhabitants projections for published in 2012 through the nationwide Institute of inhabitants and Social defense examine, to teach the earlier and destiny improvement of the dependency ratio from 1891 to 2060. Then, using the inhabitants existence desk and web copy price, the consequences of accelerating lifestyles expectancy and declining fertility at the dependency ratio have been saw individually. eventually, the old relationships between women’s survival premiums at reproductive age, the theoretical fertility fee to keep up the substitute point and the recorded overall fertility cost (TFR) have been analyzed. ancient statement confirmed TFR adapting to the theoretical point of fertility with a undeniable time lag and reminiscent of women’s survival premiums at reproductive age. Women’s expanding lifespan and survival premiums may have prompted determination making to lessen the danger of childbearing. no matter if the theoretical fertility price meets the substitute point, women’s perspectives of minimizing the chance might stay unchanged simply because for ladies the cost–benefit imbalance in childbearing remains to be too excessive in Japan. according to the findings, the writer discusses the sustainability of eastern society in terms of nationwide funds, social safety reform, kinfolk regulations, immigration regulations and group polices.
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Extra info for A Shrinking Society: Post-Demographic Transition in Japan (SpringerBriefs in Population Studies)
Population projections for Japan: 2006–2055. Japanese Journal of Population 6(1). files/population/2008_4/05population. pdf. Accessed 15 Feb 2014. NIPSSR. 2012. Population statistics of Japan 2012. asp. Accessed 24 Feb 2014. Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. 2006. The historical statistics of Japan volume 1. Tokyo: Japan Statistical Association. English edition: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Statistics Bureau. 2012. htm. Accessed 30 Nov 2013. Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications.
8 % of the municipalities (Fig. 10; Statistics Bureau 2012). In contrast to net migration rate, those negative values are growing rapidly. 3 Depopulation at Sub-national Level: Shrinking Regions 23 Fig. 10 Natural increasing rate of municipality (‰) in 2010. (Statistics Bureau 2012) women at reproductive ages, the number of death is increasing due to aging of inhabitants. To conclude, the diminishing ability for socio-demographic change and increasing weight of natural decrease are limiting the possibilities of effective countermeasures for depopulation on community levels.
Most of elderly are retired and might have not enough income for living and medical care. However, many of them are prudent to expend their savings and means. This could be because they are afraid that the social security system would collapse. In a general way, they are preparing for a reduced pension and increasing co-payment at late-stage medical care. In addition, they could not find any good investment methods for their savings, which could stimulate the real economy. As mentioned before, both pension and medical care benefits in Japan are originally conceptualized as an insurance system based on an intergenerational contract (see Chap.