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By Martha Schoolman

Traditional narratives of the interval best as much as the Civil struggle are consistently framed in geographical phrases. The sectional descriptors of the North, South, and West, just like the wartime different types of Union, Confederacy, and border states, suggest little irrespective of a map of the USA. In Abolitionist Geographies, Martha Schoolman contends that antislavery writers continually refused these regular terms.

Through the idiom Schoolman names “abolitionist geography,” those writers in its place expressed their dissenting perspectives concerning the westward extension of slavery, the intensification of the inner slave exchange, and the passage of the Fugitive Slave legislations by means of attractive to different anachronistic, partial, or completely fictional north–south and east–west axes. Abolitionism’s West, for example, infrequently reached past the Mississippi River, yet its East appeared to Britain for ideological concept, its North habitually traversed the Canadian border, and its South frequently spanned the geopolitical divide among the USA and the British Caribbean.

Schoolman strains this geography of dissent throughout the paintings of Martin Delany, Ralph Waldo Emerson, William Wells Brown, and Harriet Beecher Stowe, between others. Her e-book explores new relationships among New England transcendentalism and the British West Indies; African-American cosmopolitanism, Britain, and Haiti; sentimental fiction, Ohio, and Liberia; John Brown’s Appalachia and circum-Caribbean marronage. those connections let us see sincerely for the 1st time abolitionist literature’s specific and intentional funding in geography as an idiom of political critique, by means of turns liberal and radical, useful and utopian.

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Armed with the knowledge that Emerson’s watershed book Nature (1836) was conceived in the wake of a convalescent journey, it is not difficult to read the text as (among many other things) a celebration of Emerson’s recently recovered physical health and, indeed, a willful setting aside of both the sick places and the sick identity of his recent experience. For although the kind of originality for which the book calls is meant to be accessible to all regardless of wealth, standing, or educational att ainment, its opening pages make clear that the stance toward nature being advocated presumes a minimum threshold of physical ability as well as an abiding concern with physical health.

Nature may be the circumstantial result of a much longer journey, from Boston, to Malta, to Italy, to France, to England, but it clearly treats the ability to stay in one place as a precious semiliberation from material constraint every bit as essential as the ability to see clearly, breathe easily, and walk well. The higher levels of dialectical abstraction posited in Nature’s fi nal three sections—”Idealism,” “Spirit,” and “Prospects”—reiterate the spa- EMERSON’S HEMISPHERE 29 tial implications of this fi rst principle of physical health with notable frequency.

35 Absent idealism, why should such conceptual cartwheels be required to mediate between internal conviction and external action? The not uncommon response to this question offered by contemporary Emerson studies is that the inward turn described here as extreme and speculative would be better judged as moderate quietism in search of deferral. Rather than transforming society by withdrawal, Emerson is viewed as claiming the privilege of the intellectual in order to exempt himself from social engagement, thereby leaving such efforts to those less privileged and less protected.

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